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The 2017 Keio Medical Science Prize Laureate

John E. Dick PhD FRS

Canada Research Chair in Stem Cell Biology and Senior Scientist, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network ; and Professor, Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto

Reasons for Selection and His Major Achievement:

Identification of cancer stem cells

Tissue stem cells exhibit the capacity for self-renewal and differentiation into cells of various types. These multipotent stem cells are the principal source of the cells in adult tissue. The idea that stem cells might also be present in cancer tissues, i.e., the "cancer stem cell hypothesis," was first proposed long ago, but bona fide cancer stem cells were not isolated for many years. Professor John E. Dick was the first to isolate cells expressing hematopoietic stem cell surface markers from human leukemia cells, and transplant them into immunocompromised mice. This provided the first evidence that human leukemia can be maintained in mice, and the first indication that stem cells are present and active in leukemia. Beginning with these findings, the field of cancer stem cell research has continued to advance and it has since become clear that cancer stem cells play roles in solid tumors as well. Cancer stem cells are more resistant to therapeutic interventions than normal cancer cells, and serve as source cells in cancer recurrence and metastasis. Professor Dick 's contribution is immeasurable, as he gave rise to the idea that cancer stem cells must be destroyed for cancers to be eradicated.

Background

1974

Registered Radiological Technologist, Misericordia General Hospital

1978

B.Sc. (Hons) Dept. of Microbiology, University of Manitoba

1984

Ph.D. Microbiology and Biochemistry, University of Manitoba

1978-1984

Graduate Student, Dr. J. Wright, Department of Microbiology and Manitoba Institute of Cell Biology,niversity of Manitoba, NSERC Scholarship, MHRC Scholarship

1984-1986

Post-doctoral Fellow, Dr. A. Bernstein, Ontario Cancer Institute and Mount Sinai Hospital, Research Institute, University of Toronto MRC Post-doctoral Fellowship

1986-1991

Scientist, Department of Genetics, Research Institute Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto

1987-1991

Assistant Professor, Department of Molecular and Medical Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto

1989-1996

Research Scientist of the National Cancer Institute of Canada

1991-1995

Associate Professor, Department of Molecular and Medical Genetics, University of Toronto

1991-2002

Senior Scientist, Department of Genetics, Research Institute, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto

1995-Present

Professor, Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto

1996-2001

Medical Research Council of Canada Scientist

2002-Present

Canada Research Chair in Stem Cell Biology, Senior Scientist, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto

2007-Present

Investigator, McEwen Centre for Regenerative Medicine, University Health Network, Toronto

2007-2017

Director, Program in Cancer Stem Cells, Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, (OICR), Toronto

2017-Present

Director, Translational Research Initiative in Leukemia, Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, (OICR), Toronto


Website´╝Ü http://www.uhnresearch.ca/researcher/john-e-dick

Comments from Prof. Dick

It is with gratitude that I accept the Keio Medical Science Prize. Science is not done in isolation and I have had the good fortune to be surrounded by wonderful colleagues in Toronto who set the highest standards for scientific thought that continuously challenged me to tackle biological challenges with rigour and clear thinking. All of our work on the biology of normal and leukemic human stem cells was the cumulative effort of many students and post-docs who contributed so much to the thinking and execution of the experimental findings. I dedicate this award to them.


John. E Dick, PhD FRS.
Seiji Ogawa

The 2017 Keio Medical Science Prize Laureate

Seiji Ogawa, Ph D

Research Professor, Kansei Fukushi Research Center, Tohoku Fukushi University

Reasons for Selection and His Major Achievement:

Development of functional MRI

Professor Seiji Ogawa developed a technique for detecting MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) signals that depends on blood oxygenation levels in the brain, which he named BOLD (for Blood Oxygen Level Dependent). Professor Ogawa has shown that BOLD signals can be used in functional mapping of the human brain following sensory stimulation, establishing the basic principles underlying functional MRI (fMRI). fMRI in turn has paved the way to the mapping of human brain activity non-invasively and without the use of radioactive isotopes. The ability to measure whole brain activity, which enables the investigation of distributed patterns of activity as well as functional localization of the brain, is one of key advantages of fMRI. New applications of fMRI, such as decoding of brain activity and identification of biomarkers of neuropsychiatric disease, continue to be developed. Professor Ogawa's pioneering work on fMRI is a milestone technology that plays indispensable roles in contemporary neuroscience.

Background

1957

B.S., Applied Physics University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

1967

PhD in Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA

1962 - 1964

Research Associate, Radiation Research Laboratories
Mellon Institute, Pittsburgh, PA

1967 -1968

Postdoctoral Fellow, Stanford University, Stanford, CA

1968-1983

Member of the Technical Staff Principal Investigator, Biophysics Research
Bell Laboratories, AT&T, Murray Hill, NJ

1984-2001

Distinguished Member of the Technical Staff, Biophysics Research/Biological Computation Research Bell Laboratories, AT&T/ Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, NJ

2001-2004

Visiting Professor, Biophysics/Physiology Department Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Yeshiva University Bronx, New York

2001-2008

Director, Ogawa Laboratories for Brain Function Research Hamano Life Science Research Foundation, Tokyo, Japan

2008-present

Professor (special appointment), Kansei Fukushi Research Center, Tohoku Fukushi University, Sendai, Japan

2008-2012

Visiting Professor, Graduate School of Human Relations, Keio University, Tokyo, Japan

2008-2013

Visiting Professor, Neuroscience Research Institute, Gachon University, Incheon, Korea

2009-2016

Visiting Professor, Biophysics/Physiology Department Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York

2011-2015

R&D Advisor, National Institute of Information and Communication Technology

Comments from Prof. Ogawa

It is a great honor to receive the prestigious Keio Medical Science Prize and to join the ranks of the renowned previous laureates. The MRI phenomenon I encountered during my fundamental research a quarter of century ago has seen applications in brain science far beyond my expectations at the time. The successful development of the neuro-imaging field is the product of efforts by great many talented scientists around the world.

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